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1 Million+ Step-by-step solutionsmath books Q:Uranium-238 can absorb a neutron and undergo a fission reactionUranium-238 can absorb a neutron and undergo a fission reaction to produce an atom of cesium-135 and an atom of rubidium-96. Write the balanced nuclear equation for the process and determine the number of neutrons given off as part of the reaction.
Q:The nuclear equation for the fission of uranium-238 is asThe nuclear equation for the fission of uranium-238 is as follows:
The nuclear equation for the fission of uranium-238 is asQ:Francium has an atomic number of 87. Write the nuclearFrancium has an atomic number of 87. Write the nuclear equation for the alpha particle emission of francium-212. What is the daughter isotope?
Q:Tin has an atomic number of 50. Write the nuclearTin has an atomic number of 50. Write the nuclear equation for the beta particle emission of tin-121. What is the daughter isotope?
Q:Technetium has an atomic number of 43. Write the nuclearTechnetium has an atomic number of 43. Write the nuclear equation for the beta particle emission of technetium-99. What is the daughter isotope?
Q:Energies of gamma rays are typically expressed in units ofEnergies of gamma rays are typically expressed in units of megaelectron volts (MeV), where 1 MeV = 1.602 ( 10−13 J. Using the data provided in the text, calculate the energy in megaelectron volts of the gamma ray emitted when radon-222 decays.
Q:The gamma ray emitted when oxygen-19 gives off a betaThe gamma ray emitted when oxygen-19 gives off a beta particle is 0.197 MeV. What is its energy in joules? (See Exercise 13 for the definition of a megaelectron volt.)
Q:How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? c. 56Fe d.How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope?
How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? 
c. 56Fe 
d.How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? 
c. 56Fe 
d.

c. 56Fe
d. 224Rn

Q:How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? c. 252Es d.How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope?
How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? 
c. 252Es 
d.How many protons and neutrons are in each isotope? 
c. 252Es 
d.

c. 252Es
d. 40K

Q:Plutonium has an atomic number of 94. Write the nuclearPlutonium has an atomic number of 94. Write the nuclear equation for the alpha particle emission of plutonium-244. What is the daughter isotope?
Q:An artifact containing carbon-14 contains 8.4 × 10−9 g ofAn artifact containing carbon-14 contains 8.4 × 10−9 g of carbon-14 in it. If the age of the artifact is 11,670 y, how much carbon-14 did it have originally? The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 y.
Q:Carbon-11 is a radioactive isotope used in positron emission tomographyCarbon-11 is a radioactive isotope used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans for medical diagnosis. Positron emission is another, though rare, type of radioactivity. The half-life of carbon-11 is 20.3 min. If 4.23 × 10−6 g of carbon-11 is left in the body after 4.00 h, what mass of carbon-11 was present initially?
Q:How long does it take for 1.00 g of palladium-103How long does it take for 1.00 g of palladium-103 to decay to 0.125 g if its half-life is 17.0 d?
Q:How long does it take for 2.00 g of niobium-94How long does it take for 2.00 g of niobium-94 to decay to 0.0625 g if its half-life is 20,000 y?
Q:It took 75 y for 10.0 g of a radioactiveIt took 75 y for 10.0 g of a radioactive isotope to decay to 1.25 g. What is the half-life of this isotope?
Q:It took 49.2 s for 3.000 g of a radioactiveIt took 49.2 s for 3.000 g of a radioactive isotope to decay to 0.1875 g. What is the half-life of this isotope?
Q:The half-life of americium-241 is 432 y. If 0.0002 gThe half-life of americium-241 is 432 y. If 0.0002 g of americium-241 is present in a smoke detector at the date of manufacture, what mass of americium-241 is present after 100.0 y? After 1,000.0 y?
Q:If the half-life of tritium (hydrogen-3) is 12.3 y, howIf the half-life of tritium (hydrogen-3) is 12.3 y, how much of a 0.00444 g sample of tritium is present after 5.0 y? After 250.0 y?
Q:How long does it take 100.0 mCi of fluorine-20 toHow long does it take 100.0 mCi of fluorine-20 to decay to 10.0 mCi if its half-life is 11.0 s?
Q:Technetium-99 is used in medicine as a source of radiation.Technetium-99 is used in medicine as a source of radiation. A typical dose is 25 mCi.
How long does it take for the activity to reduce to 0.100 mCi? The half-life of 99Tc is 210,000 y.
Q:Use Table 15.4 to determine which sources of radiation exposureUse Table 15.4 to determine which sources of radiation exposure are inescapable and which can be avoided. What percentage of radiation is unavoidable?
Q:Explain how a Geiger counter works to detect radiation.Explain how a Geiger counter works to detect radiation.
Q:A sample of radon gas has an activity of 140.0A sample of radon gas has an activity of 140.0 mCi. If the half-life of radon is 1,500 y, how long before the activity of the sample is 8.75 mCi?
Q:A sample of curium has an activity of 1,600 Bq.A sample of curium has an activity of 1,600 Bq. If the half-life of curium is 24.0 s, how long before its activity is 25.0 Bq?
Q:If a radioactive sample has an activity of 65 µCi,If a radioactive sample has an activity of 65 µCi, how many disintegrations per second are occurring?
Q:Define tracer and give an example of how tracers work.Define tracer and give an example of how tracers work.
Q:Explain how radioactive dating works.Explain how radioactive dating works.
Q:The current disintegration rate for carbon-14 is 14.0 Bq. AThe current disintegration rate for carbon-14 is 14.0 Bq. A sample of burnt wood discovered in an archeological excavation is found to have a carbon-14 disintegration rate of 3.5 Bq. If the half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 y, approximately how old is the wood sample?
Q:A small asteroid crashes to Earth. After chemical analysis, itA small asteroid crashes to Earth. After chemical analysis, it is found to contain 1 g of technetium-99 to every 3 g of ruthenium-99, its daughter isotope. If the half-life of technetium-99 is 210,000 y, approximately how old is the asteroid?
Q:A process called helium burning is thought to occur insideA process called helium burning is thought to occur inside older stars, forming carbon:
34He ( 12C
If the reaction proceeds with 0.00781 g of mass lost on a molar basis, how much energy is given off?
Q:Briefly describe how a nuclear reactor generates electricity.Briefly describe how a nuclear reactor generates electricity.
Q:Briefly describe the difference between how a nuclear reactor worksBriefly describe the difference between how a nuclear reactor works and how a nuclear bomb works.
Q:How much matter needs to be converted to energy toHow much matter needs to be converted to energy to supply 400 kJ of energy, the approximate energy of 1 mol of C–H bonds? What conclusion does this suggest about energy changes of chemical reactions?
Q:In the spontaneous fission of lead-208, the following reaction occurs: 208PbIn the spontaneous fission of lead-208, the following reaction occurs:
208Pb ( 129I + 76Cu + 31n
For every mole of lead-208 that decays, 0.1002 g of mass is lost. How much energy is given off per mole of lead-208 reacted?
Q:In the spontaneous fission of radium-226, the following reaction occurs: 226RaIn the spontaneous fission of radium-226, the following reaction occurs:
226Ra ( 156Pm + 68Co + 21n
For every mole of radium-226 that decays, 0.1330 g of mass is lost. How much energy is given off per mole of radium-226 reacted?
Q:Recalculate the amount of energy from Exercise 3 in termsRecalculate the amount of energy from Exercise 3 in terms of the number of grams of lead-208 reacted.
Q:Recalculate the amount of energy from Exercise 4 in termsRecalculate the amount of energy from Exercise 4 in terms of the number of grams of radium-226 reacted.
Q:What is the energy change of this fission reaction? MassesWhat is the energy change of this fission reaction? Masses in grams are provided.
What is the energy change of this fission reaction? MassesQ:What is the energy change of this fission reaction? MassesWhat is the energy change of this fission reaction? Masses in grams are provided.
What is the energy change of this fission reaction? MassesQ:The two rarer isotopes of hydrogen—deuterium and tritium—can also beThe two rarer isotopes of hydrogen—deuterium and tritium—can also be fused to make helium by the following reaction:
2H + 3H ( 4He + 1n
In the course of this reaction, 0.01888 g of mass is lost. How much energy is given off in the reaction of 1 mol of deuterium and tritium?
Q:Smoke detectors typically contain about 0.25 mg of americium-241 asSmoke detectors typically contain about 0.25 mg of americium-241 as part of the smoke detection mechanism. If the activity of 1 g of americium-241 is 1.26 ( 1011 Bq, what is the activity of americium-241 in the smoke detector?
Q:Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) reacts with water to make uranyl fluorideUranium hexafluoride (UF6) reacts with water to make uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and HF. Balance the following reaction:
UF6 + H2O ( UO2F2 + HF
Q:The cyclopentadienyl anion (C5H5−) is an organic ion that canThe cyclopentadienyl anion (C5H5−) is an organic ion that can make ionic compounds with positive ions of radioactive elements, such as Np3+. Balance the following reaction:
NpCl3 + Be(C5H5)2 ( Np(C5H5)3 + BeCl2
Q:If the half-life of hydrogen-3 is 12.3 y, how muchIf the half-life of hydrogen-3 is 12.3 y, how much time does it take for 99.0% of a sample of hydrogen-3 to decay?
Q:If the half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 y, how longIf the half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 y, how long does it take for 10.0% of a sample of carbon-14 to decay?
Q:Although bismuth is generally considered stable, its only natural isotope,Although bismuth is generally considered stable, its only natural isotope, bismuth-209, is estimated to have a half-life of 1.9 × 1019 y. If the universe is estimated to have a lifetime of 1.38 × 1010 y, what percentage of bismuth-209 has decayed over the lifetime of the universe?
Q:The most common isotope of uranium (uranium-238) has a half-lifeThe most common isotope of uranium (uranium-238) has a half-life of 4.5 × 109 y. If the universe is estimated to have a lifetime of 1.38 × 1010 y, what percentage of uranium-238 has decayed over the lifetime of the universe?
Q:Refer to Table 15.3 and separate the sources of radioactiveRefer to Table 15.3 and separate the sources of radioactive exposure into voluntary and involuntary sources. What percentage of radioactive exposure is involuntary?
Q:Uranium can be separated from its daughter isotope thorium byUranium can be separated from its daughter isotope thorium by dissolving a sample in acid and adding sodium iodide, which precipitates thorium(III) iodide:
Th3+(aq) + 3I−(aq) ( ThI3(s)
Q:Thorium oxide can be dissolved in acidic solution: ThO2(s) + 4H+Thorium oxide can be dissolved in acidic solution:
ThO2(s) + 4H+ ( Th4+(aq) + 2H2O(ℓ)
How many milliliters of 1.55 M HCl(aq) are needed to dissolve 10.65 g of ThO2?
Q:Radioactive strontium is dangerous because it can chemically replace calciumRadioactive strontium is dangerous because it can chemically replace calcium in the human body. The bones are particularly susceptible to radiation damage. Write the nuclear equation for the beta emission of strontium-90.
Q:Give the names and charges of the cation and anionGive the names and charges of the cation and anion in each of the following compounds:
(a) CuS
(b) Ag2SO4
(c) Al(ClO3)3
(d) Co(OH)2
(e) PbCO3.
Q:Name the following ionic compounds: (a) Li2O (b) FeCl3 (c) NaClO (d) CaSO3 (e) Cu(OH)2 (f)Name the following ionic compounds:
(a) Li2O
(b) FeCl3
(c) NaClO
(d) CaSO3
(e) Cu(OH)2
(f) Fe(NO3)2
(g) Ca(CH3COO)2
(h) Cr2(CO3)3
(i) K2CrO4
(j) (NH4)2SO4.
Q:Name the following ionic compounds: (a) KCN (b) NaBrO2 (c) Sr(OH)2 (d) CoS (e) Fe2(CO3)3 (f)Name the following ionic compounds:
(a) KCN
(b) NaBrO2
(c) Sr(OH)2
(d) CoS
(e) Fe2(CO3)3
(f) Cr(NO3)3
(g) (NH4)2SO3
(h) NaH2PO4
(i) KMnO4
(j) Ag2Cr2O7.
Q:Write the chemical formulas for the following compounds: (a) Aluminum hydroxide (b)Write the chemical formulas for the following compounds:
(a) Aluminum hydroxide
(b) Potassium sulfate
(c) Copper(I) oxide
(d) Zinc nitrate
(e) Mercury(II) bromide
(f) Iron(III) carbonate
(g) Sodium hypobromite.
Q:Give the chemical formula for each of the following ionicGive the chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds:
(a) Sodium phosphate
(b) Zinc nitrate
(c) Barium bromate
(d) Iron(II) perchlorate
(e) Cobalt(II) hydrogen carbonate
(f) Chromium(III) acetate
(g) Potassium dichromate.
Q:Give the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for eachGive the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids:
(a) HBrO3
(b) HBr
(c) H3PO4
(d) Hypochlorous acid
(e) Iodic acid
(f) Sulfurous acid.
Q:Five of the boxes in the following periodic table areFive of the boxes in the following periodic table are colored. Predict the charge on the ion associated with each of these elements.
Five of the boxes in the following periodic table areQ:Provide the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for eachProvide the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following acids:
(a) Hydroiodic acid
(b) Chloric acid
(c) Nitrous acid
(d) H2CO3
(e) HClO4
(f) CH3COOH
Q:Give the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for eachGive the name or chemical formula, as appropriate, for each of the following binary molecular substances:
(a) SF6
(b) IF5
(c) XeO3
(d) Dinitrogen tetroxide
(e) Hydrogen cyanide
(f) Tetraphosphorus hexasulfide.
Q:The oxides of nitrogen are very important components in urbanThe oxides of nitrogen are very important components in urban air pollution. Name each of the following compounds:
(a) N2O
(b) NO
(c) NO2
(d) N2O5
(e) N2O4.
Q:Write the chemical formula for each substance mentioned in theWrite the chemical formula for each substance mentioned in the following word descriptions (use the front inside cover to find the symbols for the elements you don’t know).
(a) Zinc carbonate can be heated to form zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
(b) On treatment with hydrofluoric acid, silicon dioxide forms silicon tetrafluoride and water.
(c) Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfurous acid.
(d) The substance phosphorus trihydride, commonly called phosphine, is a toxic gas.
(e) Perchloric acid reacts with cadmium to form cadmium(II) perchlorate.
(f) Vanadium(III) bromide is a colored solid.
Q:Assume that you encounter the following sentences in your reading.Assume that you encounter the following sentences in your reading. What is the chemical formula for each substance mentioned?
(a) Sodium hydrogen carbonate is used as a deodorant.
Q:(a) What is a hydrocarbon? (b) Butane is the alkane with(a) What is a hydrocarbon?
(b) Butane is the alkane with a chain of four carbon atoms. Write a structural formula for this compound and determine its molecular and empirical formulas.
Q:(a) What ending is used for the names of alkanes? (b)(a) What ending is used for the names of alkanes?
(b) Hexane is an alkane whose structural formula has all its carbon atoms in a straight chain. Draw the structural formula for this compound and determine its molecular and empirical formulas.
Q:(a) What is a functional group? (b) What functional group characterizes(a) What is a functional group?
(b) What functional group characterizes an alcohol?
(c) With reference to Exercise 2.75, write a structural formula for 1-butanol, the alcohol derived from butane, by making a substitution on one of the carbon atoms.
Q:(a) What do ethane and ethanol have in common? (b) How(a) What do ethane and ethanol have in common?
(b) How does 1-propanol differ from propane?
Q:Chloropropane is a compound derived from propane by substituting ClChloropropane is a compound derived from propane by substituting Cl for H on one of the carbon atoms.
(a) Draw the structural formulas for the two isomers of chloropropane.
(b) Suggest names for these two compounds.
Q:The following diagram represents an ionic compound in which theThe following diagram represents an ionic compound in which the red spheres represent cations and blue spheres represent anions. Which of the following formulas is consistent with the drawing: KBr, K2SO4, Ca(NO3)2, Fe2(SO4)3? Name the compound.
The following diagram represents an ionic compound in which theQ:Draw the structural formulas for three isomers of pentane, C5H12.Draw the structural formulas for three isomers of pentane, C5H12.
Q:Suppose a scientist repeats the Millikan oil-drop experiment but reportsSuppose a scientist repeats the Millikan oil-drop experiment but reports the charges on the drops using an unusual (and imaginary) unit called the warmomb (wa). The scientist obtains the following data for four of the drops:
(a) If all the droplets were the same size, which would fall most slowly through the apparatus? (b) From these data, what is the best choice for the charge of the electron in warmombs?
Droplet Calculated Charge (wa)
A…………………………3.84 × 10-8
B…………………………4.80 × 10-8
C…………………………2.88 × 10-8
D…………………………8.64 × 10-8
(c) Based on your answer to part (b), how many electrons are there on each of the droplets?
(d) What is the conversion factor between warmombs and coulombs?
Q:The natural abundance of 3He is 0.000137$. (a) How many protons,The natural abundance of 3He is 0.000137$.
(a) How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in an atom of 3He?
(b) Based on the sum of the masses of their subatomic particles, which is expected to be more massive, an atom of 3He or an atom of 3H (which is also called tritium)?
(c) Based on your answer to part (b), what would need to be the precision of a mass spectrometer that is able to differentiate between peaks that are due to 3He+ and 3H+?
Q:A cube of gold that is 1.00 cm on aA cube of gold that is 1.00 cm on a side has a mass of 19.3 g. A single gold atom has a mass of 197.0 amu.
(a) How many gold atoms are in the cube?
(b) From the information given, estimate the diameter in Å of a single gold atom.
(c) What assumptions did you make in arriving at your answer for part (b)?
Q:The diameter of a rubidium atom is 4.94 Å. WeThe diameter of a rubidium atom is 4.94 Å. We will consider two different ways of placing the atoms on a surface. In arrangement A, all the atoms are lined up with one another to form a square grid. Arrangement B is called a close-packed arrangement because the atoms sit in the “depressions” formed by the previous row of atoms:
The diameter of a rubidium atom is 4.94 Å. We

(a) Using arrangement A, how many Rb atoms could be placed on a square surface that is 1.0 cm on a side?
(b) How many Rb atoms could be placed on a square surface that is 1.0 cm on a side, using arrangement B?
(c) By what factor has the number of atoms on the surface increased in going to arrangement B from arrangement A? If extended to three dimensions, which arrangement would lead to a greater density for Rb metal?

Q:(a) Assuming the dimensions of the nucleus and atom shown(a) Assuming the dimensions of the nucleus and atom shown in Figure 2.11, what fraction of the volume of the atom is taken up by the nucleus?
(b) Using the mass of the proton from Table 2.1 and assuming its diameter is 1.0 × 10-15, calculate the density of a proton in g/cm3.
Q:Identify the element represented by each of the following symbolsIdentify the element represented by each of the following symbols and give the number of protons and neutrons in each:
Identify the element represented by each of the following symbolsIdentify the element represented by each of the following symbolsIdentify the element represented by each of the following symbolsIdentify the element represented by each of the following symbolsQ:The element oxygen has three naturally occurring isotopes, with 8,The element oxygen has three naturally occurring isotopes, with 8, 9, and 10 neutrons in the nucleus, respectively.
(a) Write the full chemical symbols for these three isotopes.
(b) Describe the similarities and differences between the three kinds of atoms of oxygen.
Q:Use Coulomb’s law, F = kQ1Q2/d2, to calculate the electricUse Coulomb’s law, F = kQ1Q2/d2, to calculate the electric force on an electron (Q = – 1.6 × 10-10 C) exerted by a single proton if the particles are 0.53 × 10-10 m apart. The constant k in Coulomb’s law is 9.0 × 109 N ∙ m2/C2. (The unit abbreviated N is the newton, the SI unit of force.)
Q:The element lead (Pb) consists of four naturally occurring isotopesThe element lead (Pb) consists of four naturally occurring isotopes with atomic masses 203.97302, 205.97444, 206.97587, and 207.97663 amu. The relative abundances of these four isotopes are 1.4, 24.1, 22.1, and 52.4%, respectively. From these data, calculate the atomic weight of lead.
Q:How does Dalton’s atomic theory account for the fact thatHow does Dalton’s atomic theory account for the fact that when 1.000 g of water is decomposed into its elements, 0.111 g of hydrogen and 0.889 g of oxygen are obtained regardless of the source of the water?
Q:Gallium (Ga) consists of two naturally occurring isotopes with massesGallium (Ga) consists of two naturally occurring isotopes with masses of 68.926 and 70.925 amu.
(a) How many protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of each isotope? Write the complete atomic symbol for each, showing the atomic number and mass number.
(b) The average atomic mass of Ga is 69.72 amu. Calculate the abundance of each isotope.
Q:Using a suitable reference such as the CRC Handbook ofUsing a suitable reference such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics or www.webelements.com, look up the following information for nickel:
(a) The number of known isotopes
(b) The atomic masses (in amu)
(c) The natural abundances of the five most abundant isotopes.
Q:There are two different isotopes of bromine atoms. Under normalThere are two different isotopes of bromine atoms. Under normal conditions, elemental bromine consists of Br2 molecules, and the mass of a Br2 molecule is the sum of the masses of the two atoms in the molecule. The mass spectrum of Br2 consists of three peaks:
Mass (amu) Relative Size
157.836…………………………0.2569
159.834…………………………0.4999
161.832…………………………0.2431
(a) What is the origin of each peak (of what isotopes does each consist)?
(b) What is the mass of each isotope?
(c) Determine the average molecular mass of a Br2 molecule.
(d) Determine the average atomic mass of a bromine atom.
(e) Calculate the abundances of the two isotopes.
Q:It is common in mass spectrometry to assume that theIt is common in mass spectrometry to assume that the mass of a cation is the same as that of its parent atom.
(a) Using data in Table 2.1, determine the number of significant figures that must be reported before the difference in mass of 1H and 1H+ is significant.
(b) What percentage of the mass of an atom 1H does the electron represent?
Q:From the following list of elements-Ar, H, Ga, Al, Ca,From the following list of elements-Ar, H, Ga, Al, Ca, Br, Ge, K, O-pick the one that best fits each description. Use each element only once:
(a) An alkali metal
(b) An alkaline earth metal
(c) A noble gas
(d) A halogen
(e) A metalloid
(f) A nonmetal listed in group 1A
(g) A metal that forms a ion
(h) A nonmetal that forms a 2- ion
(i) An element that resembles aluminum.
Q:The first atoms of seaborgium (Sg) were identified in 1974.The first atoms of seaborgium (Sg) were identified in 1974. The longest-lived isotope of Sg has a mass number of 266.
(a) How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in an 266Sg atom?
(b) Atoms of Sg are very unstable, and it is therefore difficult to study this element’s properties. Based on the position of Sg in the periodic table, what element should it most closely resemble in its chemical properties?
Q:The explosion of an atomic bomb releases many radioactive isotopes,The explosion of an atomic bomb releases many radioactive isotopes, including strontium-90. Considering the location of strontium in the periodic table, suggest a reason for the fact that this isotope is particularly harmful to humans.
Q:From the molecular structures shown here, identify the one thatFrom the molecular structures shown here, identify the one that corresponds to each of the following species:
(a) Chlorine gas
(b) Propane
(c) Nitrate ion
(d) Sulfur trioxide
(e) Methyl chloride, CH3Cl.
From the molecular structures shown here, identify the one thatQ:Name each of the following oxides. Assuming that the compoundsName each of the following oxides. Assuming that the compounds are ionic, what charge is associated with the metallic element in each case?
(a) NiO
(b) MnO2
(c) Cr2O3
(d) MoO3.
Q:Fill in the blanks in the following table:Fill in the blanks in the following table:
Fill in the blanks in the following table:Q:A charged particle is caused to move between two electricallyA charged particle is caused to move between two electrically charged plates, as shown here.
A charged particle is caused to move between two electrically

(a)Why does the path of the charged particle bend?
(b)What is the sign of the electrical charge on the particle?
(c) As the charge on the plates is increased, would you expect the bending to increase, decrease, or stay the same?
(d) As the mass of the particle is increased while the speed of the particles remains the same, would you expect the bending to increase, decrease, or stay the same?

Q:Hydrogen sulfide is composed of two elements: hydrogen and sulfur.Hydrogen sulfide is composed of two elements: hydrogen and sulfur. In an experiment, 6.500 g of hydrogen sulfide is fully decomposed into its elements.
(a) If 0.384 g of hydrogen is obtained in this experiment, how many grams of sulfur must be obtained?
(b) What fundamental law does this experiment demonstrate?
(c) How is this law explained by Dalton’s atomic theory?
Q:Carbonic acid occurs in carbonated beverages. When allowed to reactCarbonic acid occurs in carbonated beverages. When allowed to react with lithium hydroxide it produces lithium carbonate. Lithium carbonate is used to treat depression and bipolar disorder. Write chemical formulas for carbonic acid, lithium hydroxide, and lithium carbonate.
Q:Give the chemical names of each of the following familiarGive the chemical names of each of the following familiar compounds:
(a) NaCl (table salt)
(b) NaHCO3 (baking soda)
(c) NaOCl (in many bleaches)
(d) NaOH (caustic soda)
(e) (NH4)2CO3 (smelling salts)
(f) CaSO4 (plaster of Paris).
Q:Many familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each ofMany familiar substances have common, unsystematic names. For each of the following, give the correct systematic name:
(a) Saltpeter, KNO3;
(b) Soda ash, Na2CO3
(c) Lime, CaO
(d) Muriatic acid, HCl
(e) Epsom salts, MgSO4
(f) Milk of magnesia, Mg(OH)2.
Q:Because many ions and compounds have very similar names, thereBecause many ions and compounds have very similar names, there is great potential for confusing them. Write the correct chemical formulas to distinguish between
(a) Calcium sulfide and calcium hydrogen sulfide
(b) Hydrobromic acid and bromic acid
(c) Aluminum nitride and aluminum nitrite,
(d) Iron(II) oxide and iron(III) oxide
(e) Ammonia and ammonium ion
(f) Potassium sulfite and potassium bisulfite
(g) Mercurous chloride and mercuric chloride
(h) Chloric acid and perchloric acid.
Q:The compound cyclohexane is an alkane in which six carbonThe compound cyclohexane is an alkane in which six carbon atoms form a ring. The partial structural formula of the compound is as follows:
The compound cyclohexane is an alkane in which six carbon

(a) Complete the structural formula for cyclohexane.
(b) Is the molecular formula for cyclohexane the same as that for n-hexane, in which the carbon atoms are in a straight line? If possible, comment on the source of any differences.
(c) Propose a structural formula for cyclohexanol, the alcohol derived from cyclohexane.

Q:A chemist finds that 30.82 g of nitrogen will reactA chemist finds that 30.82 g of nitrogen will react with 17.60 g, 35.20 g, 70.40 g, or 88.00 g of oxygen to form four different compounds.
(a) Calculate the mass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in each compound.
(b) How do the numbers in part (a) support Dalton’s atomic theory?
Q:In a series of experiments, a chemist prepared three differentIn a series of experiments, a chemist prepared three different compounds that contain only iodine and fluorine and determined the mass of each element in each compound:
In a series of experiments, a chemist prepared three different

(a) Calculate the mass of fluorine per gram of iodine in each compound.
(b) How do the numbers in part (a) support the atomic theory?

Q:Summarize the evidence used by J. J. Thomson to argueSummarize the evidence used by J. J. Thomson to argue that cathode rays consist of negatively charged particles.
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